Japheth had seven sons. Each son became the father of a nation, or of a people group who then divided into several nations. The descendants of Japheth first settled around the Black Sea (after the Tower of Babel incident in the next parashah) but then divided into their tribes and nations and migrated from there.
Gomer, the oldest, fathered the people group of the Celts. A province in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) was in ancient days called Gomer after them, and in early Roman times a tribe of Celts, called Gauls by the Romans, resettled that province where it became known as Galatia (land of the Gauls). A province in Spain is still called Galatia today as it was formerly an ancient settlement of Gauls. The Irish tongue is today still called Gaelic as they were originally Gaels (Gauls) who spoke it, and the Welsh tongue is today still called Gomeraeg. The Gauls who remained on the European continent were mostly assimilated into the Romans and Germans who came after them, but the Gauls or Celts who migrated to the British isles live on as a distinct people in the Welsh, Irish, and Scots; and in Brittany (northern France).
Ashkenaz was a son of Gomer. His descendants became the Teutons. The Teutons settled all the land east of the Rhine River (the Celts settled the west side). The Teutons were the forefathers of all the Germanic tribes as well as the Scandinavians, who were also named from Ashkenaz: (A)s(h)ken –> sken –> Scandia. Ashkenaz is the Hebrew word for German or Germany.
Togarmah was a son of Gomer. His descendants settled Armenia probably intermingling with descendants of Ashkenaz. The name Turk and Turkey come from him.
Riphath was a son of Gomer. His descendants settled the Black Sea before migrating westward. Europe gets its name from the descendants of Riphath: Rip(hath) –> Rip –>Europe.
Magog was a son of Japheth. His descendants became the Tartars (Slavs), who settled Central Asia.
Madai was a son of Japheth. His descendants became the nation of the Medes, who with the Persians, overthrew the Babylonian Empire. The Medes migrated to the Zagros Mountains and from there settled India.
Javan was a son of Japheth. His descendants became the Greeks and various tribes settling the Mediterranean Sea. “Jupiter” is a form of “Japheth,” while “Ionian” is a form of “Javan.” The Iliad mentions “Iawan”, a direct transliteration of “Javan.”
Elishah was a son of Javan; his descendants were the Elysians, a Greek tribe.
Tarshish was a son of Javan; his descendants settled Tarsus and Cilicia on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Kittim was a son of Javan; his descendants settled Cyprus.
Dodanim was a son of Javan; his descendants settled Dodone in Greece. Dodone sent ships for the Greek war against Troy according to the Iliad.
Tubal was a son of Japheth. His descendants settled Central Asia where Georgia is today. Georgia was called Iberia by the Romans. The capital city of Georgia is still today called Tbilisi (city of Tubal). The most important river going through Georgia is the Tobol. Another important Georgian city is named Tobolsk, all after Tubal. Some descendants of Tubal eventually migrated from Iberia and settled in Spain, Spain is in the Iberian peninsula.
Meshech was a son of Japheth. His descendants settled Moscow; the area surrounding Moscow is still today called the Meschera Lowland.
Tiras was a son of Japheth. His descendants named every place they settled after their ancestor, including Thrace, the province north of Greece where Macedonia and Yugoslavia are today; and the country of Troas where the city of Troy stood on the coast of Asia Minor. He was most likely the ancestor of the Etruscans, early inhabitants of Italy, where the province of Tuscany is today. Tiras was worshiped as Thuras or Thor, the god of thunder.
Ham had four sons. Each son became the father of a nation or of a people group who then divided into their nations. They settled mostly south and west of Mesopotamia, where the descendants of Noah first established their homes after the Flood.
Cush, the oldest son of Ham, was the father of Nimrod, the most famous descendant of Noah in the ancient world. Nimrod was a mighty hunter and warrior, and with his father instigated the Tower of Babel rebellion (more on that in the next parashah). He built the first Empire after the Flood. The descendants of Cush also settled the land south of Egypt, today known as Nubia or Ethiopia (as well as Sudan) but in ancient days known as Cush.
Mizraim was a son of Ham. His descedants settled Egypt and the lands on the northern coast of Africa. One descendant of Mizraim was the father of the Philistines.
Phut was a son of Ham; his descendants settled Libya, known as Put in acient times.
The theme of the parsha stumah from Gen 10:1-14 is the sons of Japheth and Ham.